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Table 10 Development process and content of the survey

From: How different types of financial service providers support small- and medium- enterprises under the impact of COVID-19 pandemic: from the perspective of expectancy theory

Indicators References Expert scrutiny Questions & Items Requirements
Sample characteristics
 Total assets in the last fiscal year Standard Provisions on the Classification of Financial Enterprises from the People’s Bank of China Adopt What are the total assets of the company in the last fiscal year? (in RMB)
A. < 0.1 billion; B. 0.11 billion;
C. 12 billion; D. 25 billion;
E. 520 billion; F. 2040 billion;
G. 40100 billion; H. 100500 billion;
I. 5004000 billion; J. > 4000 billion
Single choice
 Financing volume to SMEs in the last fiscal year Gomm 2010; Lu et al. 2020 To design the specific scale based on professional experience What are the financing volume to SMEs in the last fiscal year? (in RMB)
A. < 0.1 billion; B. 0.11 billion;
C. 15 billion; D. 510 billion;
E. 1020 billion; F. 2050 billion;
G. 50100 billion; H. > 100 billion
 The number of SMEs served in the last fiscal year   Considering that the number of SMEs may influence FSPs’ decisions to provide financing, it is necessary to investigate this characteristic How many SMEs has your company served in the last fiscal year?
A. < 100; B. 1001000;
C. 100010,000; D. 10,00050,000;
E. 50,000100,000; F. 100,000500,000;
G. > 500,000
 The ownership of main clients (SMEs served) Zhu et al. 2020 The pandemic impacts differently for different ownership of clients, which will be similarly taken into FSPs’ consideration What is the ownership of the main client SMEs you have served?
A. State-owned; B. Private;
C. Foreign or Sino-foreign joint
 Business types Martin and Hofmann 2017; Song et al. 2018; Xu et al. 2018 In combination with classification in practice, experts have added more business types What is the business type of your company?
A. Commercial bank; B. Guarantee company;
C. Factoring company; D. Small-loan company; E. Fund company; F. Financial holding company; G. Trust company; H. Supply chain service provider; I. Fintech service provider; J. Industrial internet platform; K. Logistics service provider; L. Foreign trade service provider; M. Internet finance company; N. Others
Financing expectancy
 Lack of internal resources and capabilities Abbasi et al. 2018; Beck 2013 In combination with practical experience, experts have independently listed the relevant example at first. Then, we select the most representative statements to develop the specific item in each indicator. The item will be adopted only if all the experts agree Which of the following item is in line with the company’s current situation?
A1. Lack of enough technical talents and business professionals
A2. Lack of enough financial resources (like money, etc.)
A3. Lack of enough informatization capacity
Multiple choice
 Lack of focal firms’ incoordination Lekkakos and Serrano 2016; Wu et al. 2019 B1. Focal firms are unwilling to cooperate
B2. Focal firms have big problems on their own
 Supports from peer FSPs Ntwiga 2020; Zhu et al. 2015 C1. Cooperate with insurance companies
C2. Cooperate with other banks and trusts
 Supports from public administrations Zhang et al. 2020; Zhu et al. 2020 D1. Open public data
D2. Encourage focal firms to cooperate
D3. Limit the delay in payments among firms
D4. Assistance in dealing with debts caused by the pandemic
D5. Exemption of default by the affected debtor
D6. Reduce some taxes on financial institutions
 Supports from regulators Zhu et al. 2020 E1. Allow online due diligence
E2. Increase the liquidity of financial institutions
E3. Allow the increase of risk tolerance
E4. Allow online account opening
Financing valence
 Changes of financing volume Gomm 2010; Lu et al. 2020; Ongore and Kusa 2013 Adopt How will the financing volume to SMEs change in your company during/after the pandemic?
A. Comprehensively decrease
B. Most decrease, some increase
C. Remain unchanged
D. Most increase, some decrease
E. Comprehensively increase
Single choice/ 5-point Likert Scale
 Changes of financing rate Gomm 2010; Lu et al. 2020 How will the financing rate change during/after the pandemic?
A. Comprehensively decrease
B. Most decrease, some increase
C. Remain unchanged
D. Most increase, some decrease
E. Comprehensively increase
 Changes of default rate Ongore and Kusa 2013 How will the default rate change during/after the pandemic?
A. Comprehensively decrease
B. Most decrease, some increase
C. Remain unchanged
D. Most increase, some decrease
E. Comprehensively increase
 Served industries before the pandemic Bartik et al. 2020; Zhu et al. 2020; Guidelines on Industry Classification of Listed Companies from China Securities Regulatory Commission Adopt Before the pandemic, to which industry groups are the SMEs that you provided financing services belong?
(Arrange them in order from primary to secondary. Industries not covered need not be included)
A. IT; B. Business service; C. Education;
D. Manufacturing; E. Trade; F. Medical industry; G. Hospitality and Tourism; H. Transportation; I. Culture; J. Energy; K. Public service; L. Agriculture; M. Construction
Ranking
 Served industries after the pandemic After the pandemic, to the SMEs of which industry groups will your company mainly provide financing services?
(Arrange them in order from main to secondary. Industries not covered need not be included)
A. IT; B. Business service; C. Education;
D. Manufacturing; E. Trade; F. Medical industry; G. Hospitality and Tourism; H. Transportation; I. Culture; J. Energy; K. Public service L. Agriculture; M. Construction
 Financing products before the pandemic Lekkakos and Serrano 2016; Silvestro and Lustrato 2014; Song et al. 2018; Xu et al. 2018 In combination with practical experience, experts have independently listed the relevant financing products at first. Then, we remove duplicate ones. The item will be adopted only if all the experts accept Before the pandemic, which financing products or services are mainly provided by your company?
(Arrange them in order from main to secondary. Business not provided need not be included)
A. Fixed asset mortgage; B. Third-party guarantee;
C. Goods/inventory pledged; D. Trade agency;
E. Factoring; F. Financing based on taxation analysis;
G. Financing with insurance; H. Financing based on data mining; I. Financing with LC
 Financing products after the pandemic After the pandemic, which financing products or services will be mainly provided by your company?
(Arrange them in order from main to secondary. Business not provided need not be included)
A. Fixed asset mortgage; B. Third-party guarantee;
C. Goods/inventory pledged; D. Trade agency;
E. Factoring; F. Financing based on taxation data analysis;
G. Financing with insurance; H. Financing based on operational data mining; I. Financing with LC