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Table 1 Variable measurement method

From: Industrial policy, structural transformation and economic growth: evidence from China

Dependent variable
 Economic growthYReal GDP (unit: trillion RMB)
Independent variable
 Industrial policyIPThe cumulative number of industrial policies (units: pieces)
Control variables
 Capital scaleCapitalPer labor capital stock (unit: 10,000 RMB/person)
 Population scalePopuPopulation density (unit: person/square kilometer)
 Informatization levelInfoThe number of telephone users (units: 10,000 households)
 Transportation levelTransPer capita public cars (unit: standard station/person)
 Human capital levelLaborThe ratio of students in universities to resident population (unit: %)
 Opening-up levelOpenPer labor foreign investment amount (unit: 10,000 RMB/person)
 Government interventionGovernThe ratio of local financial expenditure excluding scientific and educational expenses to GDP (unit: %)
 Structure rationalizationStructure1The reciprocal of Theil’s Index
 Structure upgradeStructure2The ratio of output of tertiary industry to second industry