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Table 8 Constructs Measurement Items

From: Integrating organizational learning with high-performance work system and entrepreneurial orientation: a moderated mediation framework

Constructs Items Sources
Organizational learning 1 Our aim was to search for information to refine common methods and ideas in solving problems in the project. Atuahene-Gima and Murray 2007
2 Our aim was to search for ideas and information that we can implement well to ensure productivity rather than those ideas that could lead to implementation mistakes in the project and in the marketplace.
3 We searched for the usual and generally proven methods and solutions to product development problems.
4 We used information acquisition methods (e.g., survey of current customers and competitors) that helped us understand and update the firm’s current project and market experiences.
5 We emphasized the use of knowledge related to our existing project experience.
6 In the information search, we focused on acquiring knowledge of project strategies that involved experimentation and high market risks.
7 We preferred to collect information with no identifiable strategic market needs to ensure experimentation in the project.
8 Our aim was to acquire knowledge to develop a project that led us into new areas of learning such as new markets and technological areas.
9 We collected novel information and ideas that went beyond our current market and technological experiences.
10 Our aim was to collect new information that forced us to learn new things in the product development project.
Entrepreneurial orientation 1 In general, the top managers of my firm favor a strong emphasis on R&D, technological leadership, and innovations. Covin and Slevin 1989
2 In the past three years, my firm has marketed very many new lines of products or services.
3 In the past three years, changes in product or service lines have usually been quite dramatic.
4 In dealing with its competitors, my firm typically initiates actions which competitors then respond to.
5 In dealing with its competitors, my firm is very seldom the first business to introduce new products/services, administrative techniques, operating technologies, etc.
6 In dealing with its competitors, my firm typically adopts a very competitive, ‘undo-the-competitor’ posture.
7 In general, the top managers of my firm have a strong proclivity for high-risk projects (with chances of very high returns).
8 In general, the top managers of my firm believe that owing to the nature of the environment, bold, wide-ranging acts are necessary to achieve the firm’s objectives.
9 When confronted with decision-making situations involving uncertainty, my firm typically adopts a bold, aggressive posture in order to maximize the probability of exploiting potential opportunities.
High-performance work system 1 There is standard training process in our company (corporate culture, management skills/professional skills, etc). Su 2010
2 My firm invests more time and money in training than its competitors.
3 My firm has a standardized training process.
4 My firm resolutely punishes employees who violate the rules.
5 My firm has stricter discipline than its competitors.
6 All personnel in my firm can be awarded or punished according to their performance.
7 Important positions in my firm are appointed by competition.
8 Employees can understand the production and financial information of the firm in a timely manner.
9 Employees are able to keep abreast of the goals and progress of the firm.
10 Employers pay attention to candidates’ recognition of enterprise core values when recruiting.
11 Compared with skills, my firm pays more attention to the basic quality of candidates in recruitment.
12 My firm has a strict selection process (written examination, interview, etc).
13 My firm selects excellent employees from a large number of candidates.
14 My firm has designed specific and clear assessment indicators for all employees.
15 My firm implements rewards and punishments strictly based on evaluation results.
16 The income of employees is linked to their evaluation results.
17 My firm is willing to adopt short-term incentive remuneration, such as performance bonuses.
18 My firm provides preferential treatment to key talents.
19 The overall salary level of my firm is competitive in the market.
20 My firm has a perfect career development plan for employees.
21 My firm has perfect internal promotion channels.
22 Staff enjoy the opportunity to transfer jobs inside the company.
23 My firm has a perfect staff recommendation system.
24 My firm encourages employees to participate in management.
25 My firm pays attention to the attitudes and opinions of employees.
Organizational performance Compared to last year, the growth of sales this year is… Delaney and Huselid 1996; Bae and Lawler 2000
Compared to last year, the growth of market valuation is…
Compared to last year, the growth of net profits is …
Compared to last year, the growth of assets is…