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Table 3 Regression results testing the mediating effect of psychological empowerment and core self-evaluations

From: How authentic leadership influences employee proactivity: the sequential mediating effects of psychological empowerment and core self-evaluations and the moderating role of employee political skill

Variable Proactive behavior Psychological empowerment Core self-evaluations
M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9
Leader-member − 0.08 − 0.10 − 0.11 − 0.11 0.10 0.05 0.08 0.05 0.04
Company −0.19** − 0.17* − 0.17** − 0.17** 0.00 0.06 0.02 0.05 0.04
Follower age −0.05 − 0.05 − 0.07 − 0.08 0.19** 0.18** 0.15* 0.14* 0.11
Follower gender 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.04 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00
Working time with supervisor 0.00 0.00 0.00 −0.01 0.10 0.11 0.04 0.04 0.02
Working time in organization 0.20* 0.22* 0.22* 0.23* −0.14 −0.10 −0.05 − 0.04 −0.01
Interaction frequency −0.01 −0.05 − 0.07 −0.06 0.18** 0.08 0.21** 0.16* 0.15*
Authentic leadership   0.12+ 0.10 0.09   0.30**   0.14* 0.08
Psychological empowerment     0.11+      0.20**
Core self-evaluations    0.12*       
R 2 0.08 0.09 0.11 0.08 0.08 0.15 0.07 0.09 0.12
F 3.32** 3.36** 1.50 2.05* 3.16** 23.22** 2.90** 3.17** 4.07**
∆R 2 0.08 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.02 0.03
∆F 3.32** 3.43+ 3.48** 7.10** 0.83 6.54* 2.90** 4.78* 10.39**
  1. Standardized coefficients are reported. +p < 0.10,*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 (two -tailed)