Skip to main content

Perceived market/government influences, politics and justice in Chinese organizations

Abstract

Although government intervention in economies has been widely debated lately, the extent to which government and market affect employees’ perceptions about their organization remains inadequately discussed. We took the initial steps to create measures of perceived government influence and perceived market influence, and examined how they might be associated with organizational politics and justice in Chinese organizations. Using structural equation modeling, we found that perceived market influence and perceived government influence had opposing impacts on organizational justice mediated by perceived organizational politics. Additionally, results indicated that firm type (state-owned vs. private) did not affect organizational politics, nor did it moderate the relationships between perceived market/government influences and perceived organizational politics.

References

  1. Ammeter, A. P., Douglas, C., Ferris, G. R., & Goka, H. 2004. A social relationship conceptualization of trust and accountability in organizations. Human Resource Management Review, 14(1): 47–65.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Anderson, A. R., Li, J. H., & Harrison, R. 2003. The effects of firm ownership and culture on total quality management in China. In I. Alon (Ed.), Chinese culture, organizational behavior and international business management: 223–241. Westport, CT: Praeger.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. 1988. Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3): 411–423.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Andrews, M. C., & Kacmar, K. M. 2001. Discriminating among organizational politics, justice, and support. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22(4): 347–366.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Arbuckle, J. L., & Wothke, W. 1999. AMOS 4.0 user’s guide. Chicago: Small Waters.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Boeker, W. 1992. Power and managerial dismissal: Scapegoating at the top. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37(3): 400–421.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Brislin, R. W. 1980. Translation and content analysis of oral and written materials. In H. C. Triandis & J. W. Berry (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology: Methodology (Vol. 2): 389–444. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Child, J. 1994. Management in China during the age of reform. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Child, J. 2000. Management and organizations in China: Key trends and issues. In J. T. Li, A. S. Tsui & E. Weldon (Eds.), Management and organizations in the Chinese context: 33–62. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Child, J., & Tsai, T. 2005. The dynamic between firms’ environmental strategies and institutional constraints in emerging economies: Evidence from China and Taiwan. Journal of Management Studies, 42(1): 95–125.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Colquitt, J. A. 2001. On the dimensionality of organizational justice: A construct validation of a measure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3): 386–400.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Crampton, S. M., & Wagner, J. A. 1994. Percept-percept inflation in microorganizational research: An investigation of prevalence and effect. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(1): 67–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Cropanzano, R. S., Kacmar, K. M., & Bozeman, D. P. 1995. The social setting of work organizations: Politics, justice, and support. In R. S. Cropanzano & K. M. Kacmar (Eds.), Organizational politics, justice, and support: Managing the social climate of the workplace: 1–18. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Dipboye, R. L. 1995. How politics can destructure human resource management in the interest of empowerment, support, and justice. In R. Cropanzano & M. Kacmar (Eds.), Organizational politics, justice, and support: Managing social climate of the workplace: 55–80. Westport, CT: Quorum Press.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Fandt, P. M., & Ferris, G. R. 1990. The management of information and impressions: When employees behave opportunistically. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 45(1): 140–158.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Ferris, G. R., Fedor, D. B., & King, T. R. 1994. A political conceptualization of managerial behavior. Human Resource Management Review, 4(1): 1–34.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Ferris, G. R., Frink, D. D., Beehr, T. A., & Gilmore, D. C. 1995. Political fairness and fair politics: The conceptual integration of divergent constructs. In R. Cropanzano & M. Kacmar (Eds.), Organizational politics, justice, and support: Managing social climate of the workplace: 21–36. Westport, CT: Quorum Press.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Ferris, G. R., & Judge, T. A. 1991. Personnel human-resources management: A political influence perspective. Journal of Management, 17(2): 447–488.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Ferris, G. R., Mitchell, T. R., Canavan, P. J., Frink, D. D., & Hopper, H. 1995. Accountability in human resource systems. In G. R. Ferris, S. D. Rosen & D. T. Barnum (Eds.), Handbook of human resource management: 175–196. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Folger, R., & Cropanzano, R. S. 2001. Fairness theory: Justice as accountability. In J. Greenberg & R. S. Cropanzano (Eds.), Advances in organizational justice: 1–55. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Frink, D. D., & Klimoski, R. J. 1998. Toward a theory of accountability in organizations and human resource management. In G. R. Ferris (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resource management (Vol. 16): 1–51. Stamford, CT: JAI Press.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Frink, D. D., & Klimoski, R. J. 2004. Advancing accountability theory and practice: Introduction to the human resource management review special edition. Human Resource Management Review, 14(1): 1–17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Gelfand, M. J., Lim, B.-C., & Raver, J. L. 2004. Culture and accountability in organizations: Variations in forms of social control across cultures. Human Resource Management Review, 14(1): 135–160.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Greenberg, J. 1987. A taxonomy of organizational justice theories. Academy of Management Review, 12(1): 9–22.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Hall, A. T., Blass, F. R., Ferris, G. R., & Massengale, R. 2004. Leader reputation and accountability in organizations: Implications for dysfunctional leader behavior. Leadership Quarterly, 15(4): 515–536.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. He, W., Chen, C. C., & Zhang, L. 2004. Rewards-allocation preferences of Chinese employees in the new millennium: The effects of ownership reform, collectivism, and goal priority. Organization Science, 15(2): 221–231.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Hinkin, T. R. 1998. A brief tutorial on the development of measures for use in survey questionnaires. Organizational Research Methods, 1(1): 104–121.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Hua, J., Miesing, P., & Li, M. 2006. An empirical taxonomy of SOE governance in transitional China. Journal of Management & Governance, 10(4): 401–433.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Jenner, R. A., Hebert, L., Appell, A., & Baack, J. 1998. Using quality management for cultural transformation of Chinese state enterprises: A case study. Journal of Quality Management, 3(2): 193–210.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Jones, G. R. 1983. Transaction costs, property rights, and organizational culture: An exchange perspective. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28(3): 454–467.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Kacmar, K. M., & Carlson, D. S. 1997. Further validation of the perceptions of politics scale (POPS): A multiple sample investigation. Journal of Management, 23(5): 627–658.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Lane, R. E. 1986. Market justice, political justice. American Political Science Review, 80(2): 383–402.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Li, Y., Sun, Y., & Liu, Y. 2006. An empirical study of SOEs’ market orientation in transitional China. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 23(1): 93–113.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Longenecker, C. O., Sims, H. P. J., & Gioia, D. A. 1987. Behind the mask: The politics of employee appraisal. Academy of Management Executive, 1(3): 183–193.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. March, J. G. 1988. Decisions and organizations. Cambridge: Basil Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Meindl, J. R. 1989. Managing to be fair: An exploration of values, motives, and leadership. Administrative Science Quarterly, 34(2): 252–276.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Mintzberg, H. 1985. The organization as political arena. Journal of Management Studies, 22(2): 133–154.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Mitchell, T. R., Hopper, H., Daniels, D., Falvy, J. G., & Ferris, G. R. 1998. Power, accountability, and inappropriate actions. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 47(4): 497–517.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Nee, V. 1989. A theory of market transition: from redistribution to markets in state socialism. American Sociological Review, 54(5): 663–681.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Nee, V. 1992. Organizational dynamics of market transition: Hybrid forms, property-rights, and mixed economy in china. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37(1): 1–27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Ouchi, W. G. 1980. Markets, bureaucracies, and clans. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25(1): 129–141.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Pearce, J. L., Branyiczki, I., & Bakacsi, G. 1994. Person-based reward systems: A theory of organizational reward practices in reform-communist organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15(3): 261–282.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Peng, M. W., & Luo, Y. D. 2000. Managerial ties and firm performance in a transition economy: The nature of a micro-macro link. Academy of Management Journal, 43(3): 486–501.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Pfeffer, J. 1981. Power in organizations. Boston: Pitman.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Pfeffer, J., & Salancik, G. R. 1978. The external control of organizations: A resource dependence perspective. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. 2003. Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5): 879–903.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Spector, P. E. 2006. Method variance in organizational research: Truth or urban legend? Organizational Research Methods, 9(2): 221–232.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Tan, J., & Peng, M. W. 2003. Organizational slack and firm performance during economic transitions: Two studies from an emerging economy. Strategic Management Journal, 24(13): 1249–1263.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Tetlock, P. E. 1985. Accountability: The neglected social context of judgment and choice. In L. L. Cummings & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior: 297–332. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Victor, B., & Cullen, J. B. 1988. The organizational bases of ethical work climates. Administrative Science Quarterly, 33(1): 101–125.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Walder, A. G. 1986. Communist neo-traditionalism: Work and authority in Chinese industry. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Walder, A. G. 2000. China’s transitional economy. In J. T. Li, A. S. Tsui & E. Weldon (Eds.), Management and organizations in the Chinese context: 63–83. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Walder, A. G. 2006. China’s private sector: A global perspective. In A. S. Tsui, Y. Bian & L. Cheng (Eds.), China’s domestic private firms: Multidisciplinary perspectives on management and performance: 311–326. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Williamson, O. E. 1975. Markets and hierarchies: Analysis and anti-trust implications. New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Witt, L. C. 1995. Influences of supervisor behaviors on the levels and effects of workplace politics. In R. S. Cropanzano & K. M. Kacmar (Eds.), Organizational politics, justice, and support: Managing the social climate of the workplace. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Xin, K., Tsui, A. S., Wang, H., Zhang, Z.-X., & Chen, W.-Z. 2002. Corporate culture in State-Owned Enterprises: An inductive analysis of dimensions and influences. In A. S. Tsui & C.-M. Lau (Eds.). The management of enterprises in the People’s Republic of China: 415–443. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  57. Xin, K. R., & Pearce, J. L. 1996. Guanxi: Connections as substitutes for formal institutional support. Academy of Management Journal, 39(6): 1641–1658.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Yi, J. J., & Ye, S. X. 2003. The Haier way: The making of a Chinese business leader and global brand. Dumont, NJ: Homa and Sekey Books.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Zhao, W., & Zhou, X. 2004. Chinese organizations in transition: Changing promotion patterns in the reform era. Organization Science, 15(2): 186–199.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jie Li.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Li, J., Gales, L., Yi, M. et al. Perceived market/government influences, politics and justice in Chinese organizations. Front. Bus. Res. China 5, 490–511 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11782-011-0142-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • perceived government influence
  • perceived market influence
  • organizational politics
  • organizational justice