Skip to main content

Antecedents and consequences of idiosyncratic deals: A frame of resource exchange

Abstract

This study examines the antecedents and consequences of both timing and content of idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) for attracting and retaining valuable employees. A resource exchange frame theorizes the influence pattern of personal individualism value, social skill, and perceived insider status on i-deals timing. Individualism and social skill are expected to relate to both ex ante and ex post i-deals; perceived insider status is anticipated to relate only to ex post i-deals. The frame also suggests that i-deals’ content and personal development relate primarily to relational and balanced psychological contracts; the other ex post i-deals, flexibility and workload reduction relate to transactional psychological contracts. The frame was tested with data collected from 289 Chinese employees in the telecommunication industry.

References

  1. Argyris, C. 1960. Understanding organizational behavior. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Blau, P. 1964. Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Brislin, R. W. 1980. Translation and content analysis of oral and written material. Handbook of Cross-cultural Psychology, 2: 339–444.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Chen, C. C. 1995. New trends in rewards allocation preferences: A Sino-U.S. comparison. Academy of Management Journal, 38: 408–428.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Earley, P. C. 1993. East meets West meets Mideast: Further explorations of collectivistic and individualistic work groups. Academy of Management Journal, 36: 319–348.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Earley, P. C., & Gibson, C. B. 1998. Taking stock in our progress on individualism-collectivism: 100 years of solidarity and community. Journal of Management, 24: 265–304.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Ferris, G. F., Witt, L. A., & Hochwarter, W. A. 2001. Interaction of social skill and general mental ability on job performance and salary. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86: 1075–1082.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Fisher, R. A. 1915. Frequency distribution of the values of the correlation coefficient in samples of an indefinitely large population. Biometrika, 10: 507–521.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Foa, U. G., & Foa, E. B. 1974. Societal structures of the mind. Springfield, IL: Thomas.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Foa, U. G., & Foa, E. B. 1976. Resource theory of social exchanges. In J. S. Thiabut, J. Spence, R. Carson (Eds.), Contemporary topics in social psychology: 99–131. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Foa, U. G., & Foa, E. B. 1980. Resource theory: Interpersonal behavior as exchange. In K. J. Gergen, M. S. Greenberg, R. H. Willis (Eds.), Social exchange: Advances in theory and research: 77–94. New York: Plenum Press.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Hochwarter, W. A., Witt, L. A., Treadway, D. C., & Ferris, G. R. 2006. The interaction of social skill and organizational support on job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91: 482–489.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Hofstede, G. 1980. Culture’s consequences. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Hornung, S., Rousseau, D. M., & Glaser, J. 2008. Creating flexible work arrangements through idiosyncratic deals. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93: 655–664.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Hotelling, H. 1953. New light on the correlation coefficient and its transforms. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 15: 193–225.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Hui, C., Lee, C., & Rousseau, D. M. 2004. Psychological contracts in China: Investigating instrumentality and generalizability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89: 311–322.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Nunnally, J. C. 1978. Psychometric theory (2nd edition). New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Peterson, R. S., Ranganathan, R., Chi, S. C. S., Tsai, H. H., & Chen, S. C. 2006. The key role of personal values in decoupling task conflict from relationship conflict. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Annual Conference, Atlanta, GA, August, 2006.

  19. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. 2003. Common method bias in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88: 879–903.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Rohan, M. J. 2000. A rose by any name? The values construct. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4: 255–277.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Rokeach, M. 1973. The nature of human values. New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Rousseau, D. M. 1995. Psychological contracts in organizations: Understanding written and unwritten agreements. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Rousseau, D. M. 1996. Changing the deal while keeping the people. Academy of Management Executive, 10: 50–61.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Rousseau, D. M. 2000. Psychological contract inventory: Technical report. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Mellon University.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Rousseau, D. M. 2001a. The idiosyncratic deal: Flexibility versus fairness? Organizational Dynamics, 29: 260–273.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Rousseau, D. M. 2001b. Schema, promise and mutuality: The building blocks of the psychological contract. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74: 511–542.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Rousseau, D. M. 2005. I-deals: Idiosyncratic deals employees bargain for themselves. New York: M. E. Sharpe.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Rousseau, D. M., & Fried, Y. 2000. Location, location, location: Contextualizing organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22: 1–15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Rousseau, D. M., Ho, V. T., & Greenberg, J. 2006. I-deals: Idiosyncratic terms in employment relationships. Academy of Management Review, 31: 977–994.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Rousseau, D. M., Hornung, S., & Kim, T. G. 2008. Idiosyncratic deals: Testing propositions on timing, content, and the employment relationship. Working paper, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA

  31. Rousseau, D. M., & Kim, T. G. 2006. Idiosyncratic deals and the employment relationship. Paper presented at the British Academy of Management, Belfast, Northern Ireland, September, 2006

  32. Rousseau, D. M., Lee, C., Dabos, G., Hui, C., & Wang, H. 2007. Firm culture as an antecedent of the employee psychological contract: Its alignment and fulfillment. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Annual Conference, Philadelphia, PA, August, 2007

  33. Schwartz, S. H. 1992. Universals in the content and structure of values: Theory and empirical tests in 20 countries. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 25: 1–65

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Stamper, C. L., & Masterson, S. S. 2002. Insider or outsider? How employee perceptions of insider status affect their work behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23: 875–894.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Waterman, A. S. 1984. The psychology of individualism. New York: Praeger.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Wernerfelt, B. 1984. A resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 5: 171–180.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Witt, L. A., & Ferris, G. R. 2003. Social skill as moderator of the conscientiousness-performance relationship: Convergent results across four studies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88: 809–820.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Cynthia Lee.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Lee, C., Hui, C. Antecedents and consequences of idiosyncratic deals: A frame of resource exchange. Front. Bus. Res. China 5, 380 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11782-011-0136-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • idiosyncratic deals
  • resource exchange
  • individualism
  • social skill
  • perceived insider status