- Research Article
- Open Access
Work-to-family enrichment and voice behavior in China: The role of modernity
Frontiers of Business Research in China volume 5, pages199–218(2011)
There is a lack of knowledge in the literature regarding the effects of the work-family interface on employees’ behaviors while taking into consideration of cultural values in developing countries. This study investigates the impact of work-to-family enrichment on employees’ voice behavior by focusing on the moderating role of modernity in a Chinese setting. Results from a survey of 230 Chinese married managers indicate that work-to-family enrichment positively influences voice behavior. In addition, the enrichment-voice relationship is weaker when modernity is high rather than low. The findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications for human resource management.
Balmforth, K., & Gardner, D. 2006. Conflict and facilitation between work and family: Realizing the outcomes for organizations. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 35: 69–76.
Bhargava, S., & Baral, R. 2009. Antecedents and consequences of work-family enrichment among Indian managers. Psychological Studies, 54: 213–225.
Blau, P. 1964. Exchanges and power in social life. New York: Wiley.
Botero, I. C., & Van Dyne, L. 2009. Employee voice behavior: Interactive effects of LMX and power distance in the United States and Colombia. Management Communication Quarterly, 23: 84–104.
Bragger, J. D., Rodriguez-Srednicki, O., Kutcher, E. J., Indovino, L., & Rosner, E. 2005. Work-family conflict, work-family culture, and organizational citizenship behavior among teachers. Journal of Business and Psychology, 20: 303–324.
Carlson, D. S., Kacmar, K. M., Wayne, J. H., & Grzywacz, J. G. 2006. Measuring the positive side of the work-family interface: Development and validation of a work-family enrichment scale. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68: 131–164.
Casper, W. J., Eby, L. T., Bordeaux, C., Lockwood, A., & Lambert, D. 2007. A review of research methods in IO/OB work-family research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92: 28–43.
Chen, X. P., Hui, C., & Sego, D. J. 1998. The role of organizational citizenship behavior in turnover: Conceptualization and preliminary tests of key hypotheses. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83: 922–931.
Detert, J. R., & Burris, E. R. 2007. Leadership behavior and employee voice: Is the door really open? Academy of Management Journal, 50: 869–884.
Evans, M. G. 1985. A Monte Carlo study of the effects of correlated method variance in moderated multiple regression analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 36: 305–323.
Farh, J. L., Earley, P. C., & Lin, S. 1997. Impetus for action: A cultural analysis of justice and organizational citizenship behavior in Chinese society. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42: 421–444.
Farh, J. L., Zhong, C. B., & Organ, D. W. 2004. Organizational citizenship behavior in the People’s Republic of China. Organization Science, 15: 241–253.
Fu, P. P., Tsui, A. S., Liu, J., & Li, L. 2010. Pursuit of whose happiness? Executive leader’s transformational behaviors and personal values. Administrative Science Quarterly, 55: 222–254.
Fukuyama, F. 1995. Trust: The social virtues and the creation of prosperity. New York: Free Press.
Greenhaus, J. H., & Beutell, N. J. 1985. Sources of conflict between work and family roles. Academy of Management Review, 10: 76–88.
Greenhaus, J. H., & Powell, G. N. 2006. When work and family are allies: A theory of work-family enrichment. Academy of Management Review, 31: 72–92.
Hofstede, G. 1980. Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Inkeles, A. 1983. Exploring individual modernity. New York: Columbia University Press.
Inkeles, A., Smith, D. H. 1974. Becoming modern: Individual change in six developing countries. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Karatepe, O. M., & Kilic, H. 2009. The effects of two directions of conflict and facilitation on frontline employees’ job outcomes. Service Industries Journal, 29: 977–993.
Kwan, H. K., Mao, Y., & Zhang, H. 2010. The impact of role modeling on protégés’ personal learning and work-to-family enrichment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77: 313–322.
Liu, J., Kwan, H. K., Wu, L. Z., & Wu, W. 2010. Abusive supervision and subordinate supervisor-directed deviance: The moderating role of traditional values and the mediating role of revenge cognitions. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83: 835–856.
Liu, W., Zhu, R., & Yang, Y. 2010. I warn you because I like you: Voice behavior, employee identifications and transformational leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 21: 189–202.
Marks, S. R. 1977. Multiple roles and role strain: Some notes on human energy, time and commitment. American Sociological Review, 42: 921–936.
McNall, L. A., Nicklin, J. M., & Masuda, A. D. 2010. A meta-analytic review of the consequences associated with work-family enrichment. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25: 381–396.
Milliken, F. J., Morrison, E. W., & Hewlin, P. F. 2003. An exploratory study of employee silence: Issues that employees don’t communicate upward and why. Journal of Management Studies, 40: 1453–1476.
Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. 2008. The relationship of age to ten dimensions of job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93: 392–423.
Organ, D. W. 1977. A reappraisal and reinterpretation of the satisfaction-causes-performance hypothesis. Academy of Management Review, 2: 46–53.
Organ, D. W. 1988. Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Powell, G. N., Francesco, A. M., & Ling, Y. 2009. Toward culture-sensitive theories of the work-family interface. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30: 597–616.
Powell, G. N., & Greenhaus, J. H. 2006. Is the opposite of positive negative? Untangling the complex relationships between work-family enrichment and conflict. Career Development International, 11: 650–659.
Rafferty, A. E., & Griffin, M. A. 2004. Dimensions of transformational leadership: Conceptual and empirical extensions. Leadership Quarterly, 15: 329–354.
Redding, S. G. 1990. The spirit of Chinese capitalism. Berlin: W. de Gruyter.
Ren, B., Au, K. Y., & Birtch, T. A. 2009. China’s business network structure during institutional transitions. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 26: 219–240.
Rothausen, T. J. 1999. ’Family’ in organizational research: A review and comparison of definitions and measures. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20: 817–836.
Shenkar, O., & Ronen, S. 1987. Structure and importance of work goals among managers in the People’s Republic of China. Academy of Management Journal, 30: 564–576.
Spector, P. E. 2006. Method variance in organizational research: Truth or urban legend? Organizational Research Methods, 9: 221–232.
Tsui, M. 1989. Changes in Chinese urban family structure. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 5: 737–747.
Van Dyne, L., Kamdar, D., & Joireman, J. 2008. In-role perceptions buffer the negative impact of low LMX on helping and enhance the positive impact of high LMX on voice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93: 1195–1207.
Van Dyne, L., & LePine, J. A. 1998. Helping and voice extra-role behaviors: Evidence of construct and predictive validity. Academy of Management Journal, 41: 108–119.
Walumbwa, F. O., & Schaubroeck, J. 2009. Leader personality traits and employee voice behavior: Mediating roles of ethical leadership and work group psychological safety. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94: 1275–1286.
Williams, L. J., Cote, J. A., & Buckley, M. R. 1989. Lack of method variance in self-reported affect and perceptions of work: Reality or artifact. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74: 462–468.
Witt, L. A., & Carlson, D. S. 2006. The work-family interface and job performance: Moderating effects of conscientiousness and perceived organizational support. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11: 343–357.
Wong, Y. T., Wong, C. S., Ngo, H. Y., & Lui, H. K. 2005. Different responses to job insecurity of Chinese workers in joint ventures and state-owned enterprises. Human Relations, 58: 1391–1418.
Yang, K. S., Yu, A. B., & Yeh, M. H. 1989. Chinese individual modernity and traditionality: Construction definition and measurement. Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Chinese Psychology and Behavior, 287–354.
Yang, N., Chen, C. C., Choi, J., & Zou, Y. 2000. Sources of work-family conflict: A Sino-U.S. comparison of the effects of work and family demands. Academy of Management Journal, 43: 113–123.
Zhang, H., Cone, M. H., Everett, A. M., & Elkin, G. in press. Aesthetic leadership in Chinese business: A philosophical perspective. Journal of Business Ethics.
About this article
Cite this article
Zhang, H., Zhou, X., Wang, Y. et al. Work-to-family enrichment and voice behavior in China: The role of modernity. Front. Bus. Res. China 5, 199–218 (2011) doi:10.1007/s11782-011-0128-1
- voice behavior
- work-to-family enrichment