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A multi-level study on employee voice: Evidence from a chain of retail stores


The objective of this research is to examine the joint influence of both organizational characteristics and individual personality on employee voice. Employing a multi-level design, data from a chain of retail stores were collected for hypothesis testing. A total of 267 employees from 59 stores participated in this study. The results offered support for the individual-level relationships among proactive personality, voice behavior, and individual creative performance. At the store-level, both transformational leadership and supportive peer relations exerted significant effects on voice climate, but not on store performance. In addition, negative cross-level interaction between transformational leadership and proactive personality was found for voice behavior. Lastly, implications for managerial theory and practice are discussed.


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Correspondence to Jian Liang.

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Translated from Nankai Guanli Pinglun 南开管理评论 (Nankai Business Review), 2009, (3): 125–133

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  • employee voice
  • proactive personality
  • transformational leadership
  • supportive peer relations
  • multi-level analysis