Open Access

A multi-level study on employee voice: Evidence from a chain of retail stores

Frontiers of Business Research in ChinaSelected Publications from Chinese Universities20104:110

Published: 19 November 2010


The objective of this research is to examine the joint influence of both organizational characteristics and individual personality on employee voice. Employing a multi-level design, data from a chain of retail stores were collected for hypothesis testing. A total of 267 employees from 59 stores participated in this study. The results offered support for the individual-level relationships among proactive personality, voice behavior, and individual creative performance. At the store-level, both transformational leadership and supportive peer relations exerted significant effects on voice climate, but not on store performance. In addition, negative cross-level interaction between transformational leadership and proactive personality was found for voice behavior. Lastly, implications for managerial theory and practice are discussed.


employee voice proactive personality transformational leadership supportive peer relations multi-level analysis