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Manifestation of gender discrimination in the process of human resources development—A content analysis based on interview data


This study focuses on the issue of gender discrimination manifested in the process of human resources development (HRD). A theoretical model is developed based on prior literature. Scenarios of gender discrimination in enterprises are obtained from in-depth interviews. Results of content analysis indicate that gender discrimination in HRD have four forms of manifestation, namely occupational gender segregation, employment gender discrimination, glass ceiling, and gender salary discrimination. Compared with top and middle-level managers, employees can perceive more employment-related gender discrimination and less glass ceiling. There is no significant difference between female and male in the above four manifestations. Compared with other types of enterprises, gender salary discrimination is more likely to happen in private enterprises, and occupational gender segregation and glass ceiling are more prevalent in foreign funded enterprises. It is also found that gender discrimination often occurs at the stage of job arrangement in the process of HRD.


聚焦在企业人力资源开发中性别歧视的表现形式问题, 先基于以往文献构建了人力资源开发中性别歧视表现形式的理论模型; 然后, 通过深度访谈法获取企业性别歧视的情景性资料, 运用内容分析技术结构化地分析资料来验证模型。 研究发现, 企业人力资源开发中性别歧视主要表现在雇佣性别歧视、 职业性别隔离、 玻璃天花板和薪酬性别歧视四个方面; 并且相对于高层和中层, 低层职员往往会更多地感知到雇佣性别歧视, 而更少地感知到玻璃天花板; 男性与女性职员在性别歧视四种表现形式的感知上不存在显著差异; 相对于其它类型企业而言, 民营企业更可能产生薪酬歧视问题, 外(合)资企业更容易出现职业性别隔离和玻璃天花板现象; 相对于其它人力资源开发阶段, 在工作安排阶段, 更容易出现各种性别歧视现象。


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Correspondence to Shimei Yan.

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Translated and revised from Guanli Shijie 管理世界 (Management World), 2008, (11): 110–118

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Yan, S., Yan, S. & Zhang, M. Manifestation of gender discrimination in the process of human resources development—A content analysis based on interview data. Front. Bus. Res. China 3, 470–491 (2009).

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  • human resource development
  • employment gender discrimination
  • occupational gender segregation
  • glass ceiling
  • gender salary discrimination
  • content analysis method


  • 人力资源开发
  • 雇佣性别歧视
  • 职业性别隔离
  • 玻璃天花板
  • 薪酬性别歧视
  • 内容分析方法