Skip to main content

Advertisement

You are viewing the new article page. Let us know what you think. Return to old version

Commercial guanxi in the context of Chinese native culture: An exploratory research

Abstract

Recently, guanxi has become one of the hottest topics in domestic academia. Although relationship and guanxi are the same in Chinese characters, significant differences exist between the “relationship” in the western academic context and what Chinese people are familiar with, the Chinese “guanxi”. The indiscriminate imitation of the western relationship marketing in China neglecting the Chinese native culture context is detrimental to a true and thorough understanding of the Chinese relationship marketing practice. Therefore, it is of great significance to conduct research on guanxi in the Chinese native commercial context. Based on domestic and foreign literature review, this paper uses a qualitative research method including content analysis and focus group to get a thorough understanding of guanxi both from the academia and from the practitioners, followed by quantitative analysis methods including questionnaire investigation and factor analysis to develop a native commercial guanxi concept scale. After comparison of the qualitative and quantitative research results, an integrated guanxi concept system is built, which lays foundation for the future guanxi research.

摘要

近年来, 对关系的追踪成为国内学术界的研究重点. 然而, 西方学术语境中 的“关系” (relationship) 与中国人熟悉的“关系”(guanxi) 却有很大差别. 不 考虑中国本土关系主义的文化环境, 一味地转述西方式的“关系”, 是无从真正理 解和把握以及在中国本国实践关系营销的, 因此系统研究中国本土商务“关系” 概念至关重要. 在回顾国内外文献的基础上, 通过质化研究—内容分析和专题 组访谈来全面了解学术界和实业界对商务“关系”的理解, 在此基础上进行量化 研究—问卷调查和因子分析, 发展出了一个本土商务关系概念量表, 建立了一个 整合的中国本土营销环境中商务“关系”的概念体系, 从而对今后的关系研究奠定 良好的基础.

References

  1. Alston J P (1989). Wa, guanxi, and inhwa: Managerial principles in Japan, China, and Korea. Business Horizons, 32(2): 26–31

  2. Ambler T, Styles C (2000). The future of relational research in international marketing: Constructs and conduits. International Marketing Review, 17(6): 492–508

  3. Anderson E, Weitz B (1992). The use of pledges to build and sustain commitment in distribution channel. Journal of Marketing Research, 29(1): 18–34

  4. Bian Yanjie (1994). Guanxi and the allocation of jobs in urban China. The China Quarterly, 140: 971–999

  5. Butterfield F (1983). China: Alive in Bitter Sea. New York: Coronet books

  6. Buttery E A, Wong Y H (1999). The development of a guanxi framework. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 17(3): 147–154

  7. Fan Y (2002). Guanxi’s consequences: Personal gains at social cost. Journal of Business Ethics, 38: 371–380

  8. Farh J L, Tsula S, Xin K, Cheng B S (1998). The influence of relational demography and guanxi: The Chinese case. Organization Science, 9(4): 471–487

  9. Gronroos C (1994). From marketing mix to relationship marketing: Towards a paradigm shift in marketing. Management Decision, 32(2): 4–20

  10. Jacobs J B (1982). The concept of guanxi and local politics in a rural Chinese cultural setting. Greenblatt S, Wilson R and Wilson A (eds.): Social Interaction in Chinese Society. Praeger Publisher

  11. Lee Dongjin, Pae J H, Wong Y H (2001). A model of close business relationships in China (guanxi). European Journal of Marketing, 35(1/2): 51–69

  12. Leung T K P, Wong Y H (2001). The ethics and positioning of guanxi in China. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 19(1): 55–64

  13. Morgan R M, Hut S D (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58(3): 20–38

  14. Peng Siqing (1998). Guanxi in trust: An indigenous study of Chinese interpersonal trust. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Hong Kong

  15. Pye L W (1982). Chinese Commercial Negotiating Style, Oelgeschlager, Gunn and Hain (eds.). MA: Cambridge

  16. Schuta A (1962). Common-sense and scientific interpretation of human action. Collected Papers, Vol.1: The problem of social reality. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff

  17. Wong Y H, Tam, Jackie L M (2000). Mapping relationships in China: Guanxi dynamic approach. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 15(1): 57–70

  18. Xin K R, Pearce J L (1996). Guanxi: Connections as substitutes for formal institutional support. Academy of Management Journal, 39: 1641–1658

  19. Yau O H M, Lee J S Y, Chow R P M, Sin L Y M, Tse A C B (2000). Relationship marketing the Chinese way. Business Horizons, 43(1): 16–24

  20. 黄 光国 (Hwang K K) (1988). 人情与面子: 中国人的权利游戏, 中国人的权利游戏 (Renqing and Mianzi: A Game of Power for Chinese). 台北: 巨流图书公司

  21. 金 耀基 (King Y C) (1992). 关系和网络的建构—一个社会学的诠释, 中国社会与文化 (Guanxi and Network: An Interpretation from Sociology, Society and Culture in China). 香港: 牛津 大学出版社

  22. 杨 国枢 (Yang K S) (1993). 中国人的社会取向: 社会互动的观点 (The social orientation of Chinese people: a social interaction view). In: 杨 国枢、 余 安邦 主 编 «中国人的心理与行 为—理念及方法篇(1992)» (Yang K S, Yu A B (Eds.), Psychology and Behavior of Chinese People: Concepts and Methods (1992)), 87–142. 台北: 桂冠出版社

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Tao Wang.

Additional information

__________

Translated and revised from Yingxiao kexue xuebao 营销科学学报 (Journal of Marketing Science), 2006, 9(1): 1–14

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Keywords

  • guanxi
  • guanxi scale
  • concept system

关键词

  • 关系
  • 关系量表
  • 概念体系