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Table 4 Impact of elderly support expenditure on daily consumption in different samples (GMM)

From: The crowding-out effect of elderly support expenditure on household consumption from the perspective of population aging: evidence from China

Variable (1) (2) (3) (4)
old = 0 old = 1 old = 2 old > 2
con −2.352b (− 8.39) −2.696b (− 3.29) −2.686 (− 1.41) −2.796a (− 2.26)
Control variable yes yes yes yes
Weak IV test 151.7 19.1 2.99 5.55
Sargan P-value 0.1320 0.7824 0.0000 0.0046
Sample size 11,984 6013 5070 4197