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Table 3 First order analysis—Identification of patterns

From: Crisis challenges of small firms in Macao during the COVID-19 pandemic

Stage / Categories Internal vs. External Firm A Firm B Firm C Firm D Firm E Firm F Total
Pre-crisis
 Planning Internal    4
 Testing Internal     3
 Signaling Internal    4
 Communication with employees Internal   5
 Documentation Internal   5
 Contingency plan Internal   5
 Monitoring Internal    4
During crisis
 Shorten operation hours Internal 6
 Flexible HR policy and employees’ stress management Internal 6
 Cost reduction Internal 6
 Reducing inventory Internal     3
 Exploring new products Internal and External     3
 Customer relation, advertising, discount promotion External 6
 Extending credit period with suppliers External     3
 Timely communication with employees Internal    4
 Investing in health and safety Internal      2
 Redecoration External      2
 Government loans External      2
 Investing in learning on crisis management Internal   5
 Investing in learning technology Internal 6
 Restoring public confidence External 6
 Diversification Internal and external    4