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Table 2 PP tests of the variables in Hong Kong, Jan. 1993–Feb. 2019

From: Intrinsic bubbles and Granger causality in the Hong Kong residential property market

Variable Test statistics 1% C.V. 5% C.V 10% C.V. Stationary
P t 0.115 −3.455 −2.872 − 2.573 No
D Pt −8.823 YES
D t −0.565 −3.455 −2.872 − 2.573 No
D Dt −7.770 YES
I t −0.215 − 3.455 − 2.872 − 2.573 No
D It −15.331 YES
R t −1.485 − 3.455 − 2.872 − 2.573 No
D Rt −12.993 YES