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Table 1 Consumer type and utility expression

From: Consumer heterogeneity and online vs. offline retail spatial competition

Consumer type Utility expression
A Consumers who visit and purchase from the offline retailer if satisfied with the product Ua = θ(V − pa) − tx
H 1 Consumers who purchase the product from online store of the hybrid retailer \( {U}_{h1}=\theta \left(V-{p}_h\right)-\left(1-\theta \right)\updelta {p}_h-m\left(\frac{1}{2}-x\right) \)
H 2 Consumers who purchase the product from physical store of the hybrid retailer \( {U}_{h2}=\theta \left(V-{p}_h\right)-t\left(\frac{1}{2}-x\right) \)
S 1 Consumers who browse in the offline retailer and then switch to the online store for purchase \( {U}_{s1}=\theta \left(V-{p}_h-m\left(\frac{1}{2}-x\right)\right)- tx \)
S 2 Consumers who browse in physical store of the hybrid retailer and then switch to the pure offline retailer for purchase \( {U}_{s2}=\theta \left(V-{p}_a- tx\right)-t\left(\frac{1}{2}-x\right) \)