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The structure and measurement of transformational leadership in China


Using an open-ended questionnaire, this research firstly collects data from 249 managers and employees in various companies to identify behaviors and characteristics of transformational leadership in China. A content analysis reveals that transformational leadership includes eight specific categories in China. Then, transformational leadership questionnaire (TLQ) is developed in the second study by means of expert discussion. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of data from a sample of 431 employees shows that transformational leadership is a four-dimension construct in China, including moral modeling, charisma, articulate vision and individualized consideration. The third study further confirms TLQ’s construct validity through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of data from another sample of 440 managers and employees. Internal consistency analyses and hierarchical regression analyses indicate that TLQ has sound reliability and concurrent validity.


采用开放式问卷对249 名맜理者与员工进行了调查。 分析表明, 我国的变革型领导包括8 类行为或特征。 通过专家讨论, 编制了适合我国国情的变革型领导问卷。 431 份有效问卷的探索性因素分析表明, 变革型领导是一个4 因素的结构, 具体包括: 德行垂范、 领导魅力、 愿景激励与个性化关怀。 为了进一步验证变革型领导的构想效度, 并考察问卷的信度与效度, 对6 家企业进行了调查, 获得了440 份有效问卷。 验证性因素分析证实了变革型领导问卷的构想效度, 内部一致性分析与层次回归分析的结果也表明, 基于我国文化背景新编的变革型领导问卷具有较好的信度与同时效度。


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Author information

Correspondence to Chaoping Li.

Additional information

Translated and revised from Xinli Xuebao 心理学报 (Acta Psychologica Sinica), 2005, 37(6): 803–811

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About this article


  • transformational leadership
  • moral modeling
  • articulate vision
  • individualized consideration
  • charisma


  • 变革型领导
  • 德行垂范
  • 愿景激励
  • 个性化关怀
  • 领导魅力